Temperature Scale

You can now purchase my handmade candy bars and marshmallows at http://www.bonbonbar.com/
For the explanatory post about the list, click here.

All temperatures are Fahrenheit.

30-40F – Ideal Storage Temperature for berries, apples, pears, onions, lettuce, broccoli
32 – Water Freezes
36-40 – Refrigerator’s usual temperature

42-55 – White Wine’s Ideal Serving Temp

50 – Ideal Storage Temperature for bananas, tomatoes, lemons, sweet potatoes
58-68 – Butter has ideal consistency for making pastry
60-68 – Red Wine’s Ideal Serving Temp
65-70 – Chocolate’s Ideal Storage Temp

76-80 – Average Desired Dough Temperature for bread doughs at the end of mixing

85 – Butter begins to melt
86 – Gelatin Soluble
87-91 – Average working temperature for tempered Dark Chocolate

90-95 – Yeasts in bread most active (proof boxes are often set to 90F and 80% humidity)
93.2 – Beta crystals in chocolate melt
94 – Butter’s final melting point

105 – Agar sets
105-115 – Gelatin completely dissolves

115-120 – All fat crystals in Dark Chocolate are melted

120 – Dense-fleshed fish are succulent
120-130 – Collagen in most fish dissolves into gelatin
120-125 – Beef, rare
120-140 – Starches generally begin to gelate
125-140 – Beef, medium rare

130-140 – Most fish are firm but still moist
138 – Yeast’s thermal death point

140 – Chilis & Black Pepper become volatile b/c of active ingredients
140 – Animal proteins generally begin to coagulate
140 – Fructose’s apparent sweetness is cut nearly in half
145 – Egg whites begin to thicken
145-155 – Beef, Medium
149-152 – White Meat Chicken succulent
150 – Egg whites become a tender solid
150 – Gelatin denatures if heated above
155 – E. Coli killed
155 – Chicken breast begins to get dry and tough
158 – Egg yolks set

160 – Beef, well-done
160 – Collagen in meat begins to dissolve into gelatin
160 – Salmonella’s Instant Kill Temp
165 – Whole eggs set
165-175 – Dark Meat Chicken succulent

170 – Protein-eating enzymes in many tropical fruits (except coconuts, but including figs) are broken down
170-185
– Custards coagulate

180 – In cakes, egg proteins begin to coagulate, and starch granules begin to absorb water, swell and gelate; actual setting temp depends on ratio of sugar
185 – Water simmers
185 – Agar must be heated to this temp to remelt
185-195 – Enriched Dinner rolls, internal temp doneness
190 – The highest temp an egg can reach without coagulating, regardless of the presence of other ingredients
190-200 – Ideal brewing temperature for coffee
200-210 – Hard, Crusty Bread, internal temp doneness
212 – Water boils
212 – Steak cooked dry
212 – Sweetened condensed milk undergoes Maillard browning
215-235 – Sucrose’s thread stage

217-221 – Fruit Preserves cooked to this temp, indicating 65% sugar concentration
220 – Fructose begins to melt and caramelize

235-240 – Sucrose’s Soft Ball Stage
245-248 – Sucrose’s Firm Ball Stage

250 – Maillard Browning Reactions occur
250 – Butter browns
250 – Extra Virgin Olive Oil’s Smoke Point
250-265 – Sucrose’s Hard Ball Stage

270-290 – Sucrose’s Soft Crack Stage

300-310 – Sucrose’s Hard Crack Stage
300 – Peanuts heated to this internal temp to develop flavor before being blanched and ground for commercial peanut butter
300 – Glucose begins to melt and caramelize

320-350 – Sucrose Caramelizes

375 – Animal fats’ smoke point

400 – Bread crust, straight out of the oven
400 – Clarified Butter burns

410 – Corn, Olive, Peanut, Sesame, and Soybean Oil’s Smoke Point

437 – Canola Oil’s smoke point

446 – Grapeseed Oil’s smoke point

520 – Avocado Oil’s smoke point

1,600 – Solid salt crystals melt

3,000 – Solid salt crystals evaporate

The information on the scale comes from (the absolutely extraordinary book) On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen by Harold McGee; Cookwise by Shirley Corriher; The Bread Baker’s Apprentice by Peter Reinhart; The Bread Builders by Daniel Wing and Alan Scott; Chez Panisse Desserts by Lindsey Remolif Shere, and my notes from CIA-Greystone.